ve

THE

PROCEEDINGS

OF THE

LINNEAN SOCIETY

NEw SOUTH Vy AEs

FOR THE YEAR

Lee

VOL. LITI.

WITH THIRTY-NINE PLATES, ONE PORTRAIT and 173 Text-figures

SYDNEY: PRINTED AND PUBLISHED FOR THE SOCIETY BY THE AUSTRALASIAN MEDICAL PUBLISHING CO., LTD., Seamer Street, Glebe, Sydney, and

SOLD BY THE SOCINTY. 1928-1929.

A ry re sli ie

CONTENTS OF PROCEEDINGS, 1928.

PART I (No. 215).

(Issued 16th April, 1928.)

Pages.

Chairman’s Address, delivered at the Fifty-third Annual Meeting, 28th March, 1928 . Brat a iicio an i-viii Presidential Address, a the late PrOeseor co eee B. Is B. ice We ix-xxxi Hlections Ae Hie ORS as RNR ae Xxxi Balance Sheets foe ines year tended 31st Decemben 1927 . Soo) oo oo OSI Go-ahy

PART II (No. 216). (Issued 15th May, 1928.)

Notes on Australian Coleoptera, with Descriptions of New Species. Part i.

By Charles Oke .. .. Basta eh ai er eeMc i Ah) cea i avn © baths aetna Cake 1- 30 The Loranthaceae of Ani Patias Patt vii. By W. F. Blakely. (Plates i-ix) ante 50 Crane-flies (Tipulidae, Diptera) from Barrington Tops, N.S.W. By

Charles P. Alexander, F.E.S. (Communicated by I. M. Mackerras,

Wilby Citelilog IB0SCo)) 60 0 5 a 51- 70 The Growth Rings in the Wood oe Australian ‘Avaucariant Goaitere: By

W. D. Francis. (Plates x-xi.) esl or aa A 71- 79 A Review of the Australian Species of Ganysanines iGrehidaccaens By

the Rev. H. M. R. Rupp, B.A., and W. H. Nicholls. (Plate xii.) .. .. 80- 89 A Revision of the Australian Bombyliidae (Diptera). Part i. By

Frederick H. S. Roberts, M.Se. (Four Text-figures.) .. . 90-144 Fossil Plants from Plutoville, Cape York Peninsula. By A. B. Wallon

D.Sc. (Plates xiii-xiv and two Text-figures.) .. .. .. .. .. .. 145-150

PART III (No. 217). (Issued 16th July, 1928.)

The Geology of the South Coast of New South Wales. Part i. The Palaeozoic Geology of the Moruya District. By Ida A. Brown, B.Sc., Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology. (Plates xv-xviii and four Text-figures.) .. are piuhal eMart deters amd Lay bea Le

The Larva of Hemiphlebia poteciiiis Shine Oden Be R. J. Tillyard,

M.A., Se.D. (Cantab.), D.Se. (Sydney), F.R.S:, F.N.Z. Inst., F.L.S.,

F.G.8., F.E.S., C.M.Z.S. (Thirteen Text-figures. ) Meas ts 193-206 The Physiography of the Cox River Basin. By Frank A. Craft, “BSc.

(Plates xix-xx, and seventeen Text-figures.) Sid, PAREN ak . .. 207-254 Fossil Plants from the Upper Palaeozoic Rocks of New South Wales. By

A. B. Walkom, D.Sc. (Plates xxi-xxiii and one Text-figure.) .. .. 255-269

DOS tig Aue li TD fel { é

iv. CONTENTS.

Revision of the Australian Species of the Genera Curis, Neocuris and Trachys, together with Notes and Descriptions of New Species of other Coleoptera. By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. .. ell) eas eet ater Sen ts

The Australasian Species of the Genus Nemopalpus (Psychodidae, Diptera). By Charles P. Alexander. (Communicated by Dr. I. M. Mackerras.) (Two Text-figures.) . Ramin Le ARY ih ice,

Notes on Australian Diptera. No. xiv. By J. R. ‘Malloch. (Communicated by Dr. I. M. Mackerras.) iets

Lepidodendroid Remains from Yalwal, N. SW. Ba wN. ‘B. Wallon: D.Sc. (Plate xxiv.) ae Pee re eee erm ten A Gla) cee Rint ae glace

On the Life-history of Conn o ahs By Thos. L. Bancroft, M.B., Ch.M. (Edin.). (Communicated by Dr. I. M. Mackerras.)

PART IV (No. 218). (Issued 15th October, 1928.)

Notes on Australian Diptera. No. xv. By J. R. Malloch. (Communicated by I. M. Mackerras.) (Five Text-figures.) :

Terrestrial Orchids of Barrington Tops, N-S-W. By ie Ban H. M. R. Rupp, B.A. (Five Text-figures. )

Notes on Australian Diptera. No. xvi. By I. R. Moloch: (Communtgnren by I. M. Mackerras.) (Four Text-figures.) PUP rs ween Oho eniy PbS

The Tanyderidae of Australia (Diptera). By Charles P. Alexander. (Communicated by I. M. Mackerras.) (Four Text-figures. )

New Species of Australian HErirhinides (Curculionidae). By Weenie M. Lea, F.H.S. ; i aa Rees a aR

Notes on four little- enepain Siecics of Kanes nos By A. S. Le Souef, C.M.Z.S. (Four Text-figures.) Ate Uncen) MScaUNCIDUE MEH a'r Di eee

Notes on Australian Lycaenidae. Part vi. By G. A. Waterhouse, D.Sc., B.E., F.H.S. (Plate xxv.) ; ; eds, wala Senna aes

A Revision of the Australian Bomibulidae TCpiptenay” Part ii. By Frederick H. S. Roberts, M.Sc. } MR ACH Ona re ERY Vetes atte,

A new Buprestid from Australia. By A. Thery. (Conanamnilenied by AH. J Carter.) (One Text-figure.) :

Fossil Plants from the Esk District, Gusensland By fe B. Walkom, D. Se. (Plates xxvi-xxviii and four Text-figures.) j

Third Contribution towards a new Classification of oniralian Dreniaael By G. Hy Hardy |.

Features of the Vegetative tony ae iho) Wustralian White Baw (Gmelina Leichhardtii). By W. D. Francis. (Plates xxix-xxxi and nine Text-figures.) BEBO Te GL CELI LoTR O? GRR OO eTA ASTRA GIN wesecrnt (Bs

William Aitcheson Haswell. Memorial Notice. (With Portrait.) ..

RARE WViCNone Zito) e

(Issued 14th December, 1928.)

The Life History of Doryanthes excelsa. Part i. Some Heological and Vegetative Features and Spore Production. By I. V. Newman, M.Sc. (Plates xxxii-xxxvy and forty-three Text-figures.)

Pages. 270-290

291-294 295-309 310-314

315-317

319-335 336-342 343-366 367-374 375-396 397-400 401-412 415-455 456-457 458-468 469-473

474-484 485-498

499-538

CONTENTS.

New Australian Mydaidae (Diptera). By I. M. Mackerras, B.Sc., M.B., Ch.M.

Revision of Hesthesis (oabem Gurainyeidaen Vipeether ann an Mesexintion of a new Genus and Species of the Buprestidae. By H. J. Carter, B.A., F.E.S. (One Text-figure. )

Notes on Corysanthes and some Species of Pter Oeeuiin aml Ghitostontn: By the Rey. H. M. R. Rupp, B.A. (Four Text-figures. ) Eek Fa

Notes on some Additions to the Glossopteris Flora in New South venleet By A. B. Walkom, D.Se. (Plate xxxvi and thirteen Text-figures. )

The Carboniferous Rocks between Glennies Creek and Muscle Creek, Hunter River District, New South Wales. By G. D. Osborne, B.Sc. (Plate xxxvii and seven Text-figures. )

The Carboniferous Rocks in the Muswellbrook-Scone District, ath Saecial Reference to their Structural Relations. By G. D. Osborne, B.Sc. (Plate xxxviii and two Text-figures. )

Notes on Australian Diptera. No. xvii. By J. R. Malloch. (Communi-

cated by Dr. I. M. Mackerras.) (Twelve Text-figures. ) The Physiography of the Wollondilly River Basin. By F. A. Craft, B. Sp, (Plate xxxix and twelve Text-figures. ) Be A RUN edna TARR Notes on Australian Diptera. No. xviii. By J. R. Malloch. (Communi- cated by Dr. I. M. Mackerras.)

PART VI (No. 220). (Issued 15th February, 1929.)

Abstract of Proceedings Donations and Exchanges List of Members

v. Pages.

539-543

544-550 591-554

555-564

565-587

588-597 598-617 618-650

651-662

XXXV-Xl Vi xlvii-lxiv lxv-lxix

Index Sg HE, Sint His enc ok TERRE RC Mant). | seo) Ske te OCD Oo aint

vi. CONTENTS.

LIST OF NEW TRIBES, GENERA AND SUBGENERA DESCRIBED IN THIS VOLUME (1928).

Page. AC OMUOSTINA s (CASIITEAGC)) | 2 eon. sen aha ss Bah te ekeneiy Boies g)-akiais ark bene Mic d Nue ed ee RM A Anthracomyza (Calliphoridae) Sy een ee AT hh eer ye ken | aah) Berisina (Beridinae) pseyl 2 Us gatrcUr y irombatertel u's -on Lusch St Nee REE ETS od RL EO OLE Bitrephes (Ptinidae) BUD aaa CE We Ree ee ey Las te hctts Ma Poem RE Ralam Rin wn ACL Calliplatyura (Ceroplatinae) .. .. .. ete wea ia Tue RAN eR a eels PL OULO) Chaetopiophila (Piophilidae) Be EE RN Rea Soe 0K TAURI a MENT SEPP Rac sy ae Ne aaeapee Naty D. mer (0) CHU RCLIFG (SEO wos) 5, coe oe 66 on a6 a0 od) oo oc oo GH Eupinion (Brachyglutini, Coleoptera) Dah oN pee fh i UAT MCW A gua falta al oc 14 Hupinolus (Brachyglunini, Coleoptera) .. .. .. .. .. .. .. so. 11 Butanyderus’ (Banyderidae iy) Mapa ee in) chy) ee Ie Ut Se) a a eam Limnella (Muscidae) Fou paeiacchelas pis, opqat Ledge Sh aie Gabel aps Weeea ee Limnina (Muscidae) A an ee hoe S Pen Lu Rin ToAPeC Ma RG t.., Beall Matlleecola (Brachyglutini, Coleoptera) AO a OR IG, SAR Ue ee rae 15 NEON ALI NUDOL USI (lay Aiibas COLE OECTA) een nn nnn 22 MN COMUDEL ORG (CEO MENGIMBAQ) 955 se) go 68 660 ba Go, do oo oo. ae oo GOO INGOSOGROVOG OM (CSAS ODOON) 665 co 65 06 20 06 6 ao eo ac oo (GU Neosepedon (Dichaetophora) Dee bs) ER Oe aaa der ay ERROR T Oe Fike So ea) LADO UGS (NMEA TMIMEYS)) 5 kg ng kw op oe oe oon ABE Podanema (Sepsidae) SE TAREE cay, Wied ag BUaNt Sheen Nee Pec Ria: yah st Slee oe eS IESGUUODEDRANES (LDPOROSO ONES) 5, op oc oo on oa ae ao no os oo UY MERU AO CRN UO NEMS) 65 6 so ok eo oe eo . ROR Theryaxia (Buprestidae) S See iles ) aint Ree Tn or cata denim ad rte 7.0) Oa Renn 1.0)

Xenoplatyura (Ceroplatinae) 6 oy WEA MID 1 ateg Metis aia oA A a a (1) ()

CONTENTS. Vii.

LIST OF PLATES.

PROCEEDINGS, 1928.

i-iii—Species of Korthalsella.

iv-vii—Species of Notothizos.

vii-ix.—Species of Viscum.

x-xii—Sections of Araucaria and Agathis.

xii.—Species of. Corysanthes.

xiii-xiv.—Fossil plants from Plutoville, Cape York Peninsula.

xv.— Geological sketch map of the Moruya District.

xvi-xviiiimRocks of the Moruya District.

xix-xx.—Physiography of Cox River Basin. .

xxi-xxiii.—Carboniferous and Permian fossil plants from New South Wales.

xxiv.—Devonian fossil plants from Yalwal.

xxv.—Subspecies of Pseudalmenus and Miletus.

XXVi-xxviliimFossil plants (Triassic) from Hsk.

XXix-xxxi.—Sections of Gmelina Leichhardatii.

XXxXii-xxxv.—_ Doryanthes excelsa.

xxxvi.—Glossopteris shoots, and seeds from N.S.W.

xxxvii.—Geological map of the Carboniferous system between Glennies Creek and Muscle Creek.

XxXxXviilii—Geological map of the Carboniferous rocks in the Muswellbrook-Scone District.

xxxix.—Block diagram of the Wollondilly Basin.

Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page

CORRIGENDA.

14, line 22, for Tyramorphus, read Tyromorphus 35, line 39, for australe, read australis

101, 336, 526, 521, 533, 538 601,

line 40, for sinwatifscia, read sinuatifascia

line 28, for Prasophylum, read Prasophyllum

line 2, for larger, read smaller

line 8 for placenta

in column “Megasporogenesis”’ i or placental

explanation of Plate xxxv, Figs. 23, 28 read receptacle.

line 7, for Calloplatyura read Calliplatyuwra (Note: Calliplatyura takes

precedence, appearing in the key on Page 600)

THE

PROC re ENG.S

OF THE

LINAEAN SOCIETY

OF feo,

New SoutH WALES Z

We

<

WEDNESDAY, 28TH Marcu, 1928. The Fifty-third Annual General Meeting, was held at Macleay House, 16 College Street, Sydney, on Wednesday evening, 28th March, 1928.

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. Mr. R. H. Cambage, C.B.E., F.L.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. The minutes of the preceding Annual General Meeting (30th March, 1927) were read and confirmed.

CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS.

A sad and melancholy circumstance is responsible for the delivery of a Presidential Address to-night when the Society has no President. It was characteristic of the enthusiasm and thoroughness of Professor Harrison that he had completed the manuscript of his Address nearly three months before the time for its delivery and so we are able to listen to his able summary of his own work in connection with some important problems concerning host and parasite.

For the second time in the history of the Society death has snatched a President before the completion of his term of office. In November, 1890, some nine weeks before the Annual Meeting, Professor W. J. Stephens, President of the Society, died after a short severe illness; this year, some five weeks before this Annual Meeting, we were all appalled by the news of the sudden death of Professor L. Harrison whilst enjoying a well-earned holiday at Narooma. The parallelism of the two losses is strikingly lose; each occupied a professorship of Natural History, Professor Stephens havirg the wider designation of Professor of Natural History, Professor Harrison the more specialized one of Professor of Zoology; each had made extremely valuable contributions to Australian Natural History; each had served this Society with distinction in the office of President; and each was revered and beloved by colleagues and friends. It is a remarkable fact that during a short period of three years, seven deaths have occurred of members who have occupied our Presidential Chair—mere contemplation of their names makes us realize our losses: Haswell, Steel, Maiden, Fletcher, Hedley, Ferguson, Harrison.

In March, 1927, Mr. M. F. Albert, who had purchased from the Society the

land: on which stood the Linnean Hall at Elizabeth Bay, approached the Council A

~

7J5) fi

ii CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS.

with the object of obtaining possession of the land before the Society’s lease expired in November, 1928. His proposals were accepted by the Council and arrangements were made to house the Society’s library at the Macleay Museum and to store the bacteriologist’s apparatus and equipment. On 25th May, 1927, the property was formally handed over to Mr. Albert, the Society thus finally relinquishing all title to the land which Sir William Macleay presented to it in October, 1885, for the unexpired balance (about 89 years) of his original lease, and of which the Society purchased the freehold about the end of 1910.

For some time past the possibility of providing a building in which most, if not all, of the scientific societies of Sydney could be housed has been under consideration by a committee composed of representatives of the Institution of Engineers, the Royal Society of New South Wales and our Society. As a first step representations were made to the Government of New South Wales, which has expressed its willingness to provide a site and has offered a piece of land at the corner of Essex and Gloucester Streets. A practicable proposal appears to have been put forward, but negotiations have not yet approached the final stages. In the meantime the Society’s library remains at the Macleay Museum, and until some final decision has been arrived at, your Council will not further consider the plan which it had in view of providing a new building for a hall and library at 16 College Street.

The nineteenth meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science was held at Hobart in January last and proved highly successful, indicating that the good done by the meetings is appreciated both by the public and by scientific workers. Hach of the fifteen sections of the Association held well attended meetings and was fully occupied with papers and discussions.

About June, 1927, the Government of New South Wales issued a proclamation protecting, for a period of one year, certain of the wild flowers. The Govern- ment is to be congratulated on taking this step; it is, however, only a step towards giving our beautiful flowers an opportunity to recover from the many years of unrestrained picking to which they have been subject, and it is to be hoped not only that the period of protection will be extended but that, as necessity arises, the protection will be extended to other species that may be in danger of extermination.

The concluding part of Volume lii of the Society’s Proceedings has been issued. The complete volume (571 plus xcv pages, 50 plates and 372 text-figures) contains thirty-seven papers from twenty-six authors, five of the papers being. contributions from the Society’s research staff. In view of the fact that for the last two years there has been a big accumulation of papers towards the end of the year, as a result of which a number have had to be held over till the following year’s Proceedings, the Council has decided to increase the size of the volume by the issue of an additional part each year. There will now be four parts devoted to the publication of papers, the months of issue being probably May, July, October and December. In this way the Council hopes to keep abreast of the increasing activity of members of the Society.

The addition to Rule vi, agreed to and confirmed at Special General Meetings on 30th March and 27th April, 1927, makes provision for Life Membership of the Society which may be taken advantage of by members who wish to compound their annual subscription.

Exchange relations with scientific societies and institutions have continued to be normal. The number of receipts for the session shows a large increase due,

CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS. ili.

in part, to the resumption of exchanges with some Russian societies and to the receipt of some long series of periodicals in exchange for the Proceedings. The receipts total 2,540 as compared with 1821, 1409 and 1457 for previous sessions. Applications for the establishment of exchange relations continue and during the past twelve months the following societies and institutions have been added to our exchange list:—Department of Mines, Adelaide; Mines Department, Hobart; Geological Survey of the Netherlands Hast Indies, Bandoeng, Java; Musée Royale d’Histoire Naturelle, Brussels; Agricultural Experiment Station, Stockholm; Société des Naturalistes de Kiew, Kiew; State Institute of Experimental Agronomy, Bureau of Applied Entomology, Leningrad; Kossino Biological Station, Moscow; Agricultural Experiment Station, Saratov; Société Hntomologique de Stavropol, Stavropol; San Diego Society of Natural History, San Diego. One exchange—with the American Entomological Society—has been discontinued.

The vacancy on the Council caused by the death of Dr. E. W. Ferguson was filled by the election of Mr. A. J. Nicholson, M.Sc.

I have much pleasure in offering the Society’s heartiest congratulations to:—

Mr. E. GC. Andrews on his election as President-elect of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science; Dr. W. G. Woolnough on his appointment as Geological Adviser to the Commonwealth Government; Mr. A. H. K. Petrie on his election to an 1851 Exhibition Travelling Scholarship; Dr. R. J. Tillyard on his appointment as Chief Commonwealth Entomologist; Mr. C. A. Sussmilch on his appointment as Principal of the East Sydney Technical School and Assistant Superintendent of Technical Education; Mr. C. Barnard on his appointment as Assistant Botanist to the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research; Professor T. G. B. Osborn on his appointment to the Chair of Botany in the University of Sydney; Sir Douglas Mawson on the award to him of the medal of the Société de Géographie, Paris, in recognition of the oceanographical work of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition.

During the past year the names of sixteen members have been added to the list and four names have been removed, two members have resigned and death has taken five members. The number of ordinary members now on the roll is 168. The losses by death have again been very severe, the names being D. F. Cooksey, E. W. Ferguson, L. Harrison, John Mitchell and R. Greig Smith.

In addition to these, four former members have died during the year, viz.: Professor A. Liversidge, an original member who continued his membership till 1907, Messrs. E. R. Waite and T. Whitelegge, both of whom had been members of Council, and Dr. J. M. Petrie, Linnean Macleay Fellow in Biochemistry from 1907 to 1925. Mr. Waite was a member of the Society from 1893 to 1914 and a Councillor from 1904 to 1906; Mr. Whitelegge was elected a member in 1883 and served on the Council from 1890 to 1896.

DANIEL FREDERICK CoOKSEY, who died on 16th September, 1927, after a short illness, was born in London on 10th June, 1864. With his wife and family he came to Australia about seventeen years ago, residing in Victoria for nearly three years. He then came to Sydney and afterwards removed to Mayfield, Newcastle. For the past five years he had been employed in the drawing office of the Broken Hill Proprietary Company in Newcastle. He joined this Society in 1926 but as his residence was so far away he was able to attend few meetings. Whilst in Newcastle he took a keen interest in relics of the aboriginals and being an assiduous collector, he had gathered together a very large number of aboriginal implements and had carefully mapped the areas in the Newcastle District where

iv. CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS.

they occurred. He was a man of some artistic ability and achievement, having studied decorative art in his younger days.

EUSTACE WILLIAM FrErRGusoN, son of the late Rev. John Ferguson, was born at Invercargill, New Zealand, in 1884, and came to Sydney in 1894. He received his early education at various schools in Sydney and entered the University in 1903. In 1908 he graduated M.B., Ch.M., with honours, having, during his course, won Professor Haswell’s prize for Zoology, the Collie prize for Botany and Professor Anderson’s prize for Logic. After graduation he was appointed Resident Medical Officer at Sydney Hospital, and during 1909-10 he served as Pathologist to the Hospital.

In 1911 he went into private practice with Dr. Walton Smith, but after a short time he entered the Public Service, being appointed, in 1912, a medical officer at the Rydalmere Hospital for the Insane. In 1913 he was transferred to the Micro- biological Laboratory of the Department of Public Health but soon afterwards (in 1915) he volunteered for service overseas during the Great War and was for four years attached to the Australian Army Medical Corps in England, France and Palestine. He was for some time in charge of the Anzac Field Laboratory in the Jordan Valley. In 1920, shortly after resuming his work at the Health Department, he was appointed Principal Microbiologist in succession to Dr. J. B. Cleland, who had been appointed to the Chair of Pathology in the University of Adelaide. He was taken ill on 27th November, 1926, and after suffering severely from Bright’s disease for nearly eight months, he died on 18th July, 1927.

Harly in life he evinced a keen interest in entomology and whilst an under- graduate succeeded in collecting many rare beetles on the Blue Mountains and around Sydney. He retained this interest for the remainder of his life, studying particularly a family of ground-weevils (Amycteridae) on which he contributed a series of ten papers to our Proceedings during the years 1909 to 1923, in addition to one paper dealing with the Amycteridae of the Voyage of the Astrolabe, 1835, in 1911. He also combined his entomological interests with his medical work and in this connection became an authority on Australian flies and mosquitoes, and one of the outstanding authorities of his day on medical entomology. He had a very wide knowledge of insects in general, but confined his published original work to a few special groups. His contribution to the study of other groups, however, was no mean one, for he collected widely and submitted many of his collections to other specialists who studied them and published the results of their study. Amongst such may be mentioned the series of Studies on Australian Diptera in our Proceedings, by J. R. Malloch; a large proportion of the material there described was forwarded to Mr. Malloch by Eustace Ferguson. He was a gifted collector, his keen eye and unusually developed powers of close observation making possible for him what would have been impossible for many, namely the collection of groups of insects, so minute in size and so swift in flight that their capture is a matter of no little difficulty. He had also a wide knowledge of Australian birds and often astonished his colleagues by his familiarity with birds which he met for the first time, having previously only known them from books.

He joined our Society in 1908, was elected a member of Council in 1921 and was President for the Session 1926-1927. He was a member of the Royal Society of New South Wales and a Councillor of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, of which he was President for the year 1922-23. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Tropical Medicine. In addition to his eleven papers on Amycteridae he contributed to our Proceedings one on a new species

CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS. v.

of Mycetophilidae and three (in conjunction with colleagues) on Australian Tabanidae.

RoBert GREIG-SMITH, who died at Darlinghurst on 6th August, 1927, was born at Edinburgh in 1866. He was educated at George Watson’s College and in 1890 obtained the degree of Bachelor of Science at the University of Edinburgh, where he had a distinguished course, especially in botany and chemistry. In 1891 he was appointed Lecturer in Agricultural Chemistry at the Durham College of Science at Newcastle-upon-Tyne where, later, by vote of convocation he was awarded the degree of M.Sc. Whilst he was at Durham College he was additional examiner in Agricultural Chemistry in the University of Edinburgh and also in Chemistry and Physics to the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. He obtained continental experience in his subject by studying in the laboratories of Professor Stutzer of Bonn, and Herr Alfred Jorgensen of Copenhagen. He was appointed Macleay Bacteriologist to this Society at a special meeting of Council on 4th March, 1898, and arrived in Sydney in September of the same year, taking up his duties immediately. The fitting up of a laboratory, which had been delayed until his arrival, took some time but it was not long before he was able to settle down to his research, his first paper appearing in Part 4 of the Proceedings for 1899. During the twenty-nine years for which he was Macleay Bacteriologist he contributed 81 papers to the Proceedings, covering a wide range of bacteriological problems, amongst which may be noted those dealing with the Bacterial Flora of the Sydney Water Supply (1900), the Bacterial Origin of Gums of the Arabin Group (1902-04), Contributions to our Knowledge of Soil Fertility (1910-18), the Germicidal Activity of Eucalyptus Oils (1919), the High Temperature Organism of Fermenting Tan-bark (1921-23), the Influence of Colloids upon Fermentation (1924-27), and numerous smaller papers dealing with Slime Bacteria, and the Formation of Slime, and also the Fixation of Nitrogen. In 1903 he attained his doctorate in Science of the University of Edinburgh.

Apart from his research work he took a Keen interest in scientific societies whose range of work covered his own subject, and held office in a number of them. In 1906 he was President of the Pathological Club of Sydney; 1907, President of Section I of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science; 1906-08, Chairman of the Sydney Section of the Society of Chemical Industry; 1915, President, 1925-27, Hon. Secretary, and 1906-1927, member of Council of the Royal Society of New South Wales.

During his term of office he was twice granted extended leave to enable him to visit Europe to keep in touch with the progress of bacteriological work by establishing personal contact with colleagues working on subjects similar to his own. He became ill in the early part of 1927 and the Council granted him six months’ leave in the hope that the rest would enable him to recover but he passed away quietly on 6th August. He leaves behind him a large bulk of research in bacteriology which cannot but be of considerable value to future workers in a subject in which at the present time there are far too few research workers in Australia. :

LAUNCELOT Harrison, the eldest son of the late Dr. Thomas Harrison, of Sydney, was born at Wellington, N.S.W., in 1880. He was educated at the King’s School, Parramatta, where he was head of the school and Broughton Scholar for two years.

In 1911 he entered the University of Sydney and in 1913 graduated Bachelor of Science with first-class Honours and the University Medal in Zoology and Honours in Botany. He won Professor Haswell’s prize for Zoology and Mr.

vi. CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS.

W. S. Dun’s prize for palaeontology during his course. During 1913 and 1914 he was Junior Demonstrator in Zoology and Botany and in 1914 was awarded the John Coutts Scholarship. In the same year he was elected to an 1851 Hxhibition Scholarship and proceeded to Cambridge where he won an exhibition for research at Emmanuel College. In 1916 he gained the degree of Bachelor of Arts (Research), Cambridge. He did a large amount of scientific work in connection with the Great War, working for about fifteen months in the laboratory under Professor Nuttall and in 1916 he went as Advisory Entomologist to the Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia with the rank of Lieutenant, later being promoted to Captain. The work accomplished in preventing the communication and spread of insect-carried diseases was of the greatest importance and undoubtedly saved a large number of valuable lives. While still on active service he was appointed Lecturer and Demonstrator in Zoology in the University of Sydney in 1918, the position being held for him until he resumed duty in July, 1919. In September, 1920, he was appointed Acting Professor of Zoology and in 1923 became Professor of Zoology, succeeding the late Professor S. J. Johnston. In 1920, he was also appointed Lecturer in Veterinary Parasitology. He took the keenest interest in University affairs apart from his own subject and was President of the Union in 1920-21, and held office in the University Science Society and University Dramatic Society.

While he was at Cambridge he took an active interest in University life and in scientific matters; he was a Vice-President of the Cambridge Union Society and President of the Cambridge Natural History Society. In 1915 he was invited to open a discussion before Section D (Zoology) of the British Association on the general question of host-parasite relations, and in the following year to address the British Ornithologists’ Club, when he propounded a classification of petrels based entirely upon their Mallophagan parasites.

For many years before he entered the University he was interested in Natural History and was an active member of the Field Naturalists’ Club. He was interested in his earlier life especially in external parasites—the Mallophaga in particular—and in birds, but later he had the widest possible interest in general zoology, though perhaps the subject of the relation between host and parasite, in its many aspects, held first place with him till the end.

During the last year or two he was specially interested in the evidence contributed by host-parasite occurrences to the solution of problems of former land connections, particularly between Australia, Antarctica, and South America and made this the subject of a fine address to Section D of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science at Perth in August, 1926. Harrison had all the attributes which go to make a successful University Professor in the widest sense, amongst them a thorough knowledge of his subject and the capacity for imparting that knowledge to others, ability of the highest order for carrying out research, combined with the rare faculty of inspiring and stimulating research in his students, and finally the possession of administrative ability far above the average. He has left his mark on Australian Zoology, not only in his wide accomplishment in research but also in an enthusiastic group of students who have done much research already and give promise of attaining high places among Australian zoologists.

His published work, chiefly on Mallophaga and the relations between host and parasite, is scattered widely in scientific journals; he contributed papers at various times to The American Naturalist, Parasitology, The Ibis, The Proceedings

CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS. Vii.

of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and The Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, in addition to many of the Australian scientific societies. To our Proceedings he contributed only four papers, two of them in conjunction with colleagues.

Joun MircHett, who died on 14th January, 1928, at the War Memorial Hospital, Waverley, Sydney, after having undergone an operation the previous day, was born at Ballieston, near Glasgow, Scotland, in 1848, and came to Australia a year later with his parents, who settled in the Newcastle District, his father having been appointed Under Manager for the Coal and Copper Company’s mine at Victoria Tunnel, Glebe, Newcastle. In 1873 he joined the Department of Public Instruction and received his training at the Fort Street Training School. After teaching for a short time in the Newcastle district he was transferred to Balranald, where he remained for nine years and in 1883 he was moved to Bowning. In 1898 he was appointed to take charge of the Technical College and School of Mines at Newcastle where he remained until his retirement about sixteen years later. Besides administering the affairs of the College, he lectured on a wide range of subjects including Geology, Mineralogy, Chemistry, Assaying and Botany. In 1910 he visited Europe, visiting a number of Technical Colleges and also accompanied the late Sir George Reid to an educational conference in Belgium.

He was a gifted collector, and his collecting days commenced at Balranald where he gathered together a collection of beetles and butterflies. But on his removal to Bowning, a district rich in geological and palaeontological interest, he commenced to turn his attention seriously to Geology and occupied all his spare time in collecting fossils. Spending many years in a locality so rich in fossils he soon amassed a fine collection, which he studied seriously, the results of his studies being published in a series of valuable papers in our Proceedings. His published work was chiefly confined to the two groups Trilobita and Brachiopoda, though in addition he contributed occasional papers on Gasteropods, Pelecypods and more recently he turned his attention to Leaia and the Estheriae. It was on the Trilobites and Brachiopods, however, that his best work was done and on which he was regarded as an authority. On the Trilobites he worked for many years in collaboration with the late R. Etheridge, Jr., and together they published a series of seven important papers in these Proceedings between the years 1890 and 1917. His own papers in the Proceedings numbered seventeen between the years 1886 and 1927, his last paper having been published after he attained the age of 79 years and less than a year before his death.

After his retirement he lived at Waratah in the Newcastle district, and devoted a great deal of time to the collection of fossil insects in the Newcastle Coal Measures. These fossils are not plentiful and a keen eye was necessary for their discovery, but with the born collector’s instinct and patience he managed to gather a fine collection; he also had extensive collections of fossil plants, particularly from the Wianamatta Shales in the vicinity of Narellan and Glenlee and from the Glossopteris-bearing rocks of the Newcastle district.

The year’s work of the Society’s research staff may be summarized thus:

The late Dr. R. Greig-Smith, Macleay Bacteriologist to the Society, continued his investigations into the activity of mineral colloids upon fermentation; a paper containing three further parts of this work appeared in the Procreprnes for 1927. Having been in indifferent health for some time he was, in May, 1927, granted six months leave of absence in the hope that he would regain his normal health, put his illness was terminated suddenly by his death on 6th August, 1927.

Vili. CHAIRMAN’S ADDRESS.

Dr. I. M. Mackerras, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology, was given leave of absence in January, 1927, to carry on work at the Bureau of Microbiology during the absence of Dr. E. W. Ferguson. After Dr. Ferguson’s lamentable death, Dr. Mackerras was offered a permanent appointment which he accepted and resigned his Fellowship on 30th September. Actually then he did not carry out any research as a Linnean Macleay Fellow during the past year, but he submitted two papers on mosquitoes containing the results of his previous year’s research as a Fellow and these appear in the ProcreEpines for 1927.

Miss May M. Williams, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Botany, has continued her observations on the gametogenesis and life-history of Bryopsis plumosa. She was successful in obtaining fertilization of the female gamete and germination of the zygospore thus formed, and was able to study the various stages in detail. She also commenced a study of Hctocarpus, spending some time on the literature relating to this and allied genera, having in view an investigation of the formation of unilocular and multilocular sporangia.

Miss Ida A. Brown, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Geology, spent the earlier part of the year in the laboratory, working on specimens collected previously in the Moruya district and on the preparation of her geological map. She then spent some time in the district in order to complete the mapping, and studied in particular the relationships of the Early Palaeozoic sediments and the occurrence of the Tertiary beds. Further field work was done in the Tilba-Mt. Dromedary area, to the south of Milton, where she did some preliminary mapping and collecting. Part of the work on the Moruya district dealing with the Palaeozoic geology has now been completed and the results embodied in a paper which will appear in the Procrrpines for 1928. A further paper on the Cainozoic geology of the area is to form a later part of the work.

Miss Brown proposes this year to continue the work on the geological history of the South Coast of New South Wales, paying special attention to the problems of the geological age, conditions of sedimentation, mutual relationships and subsequent tectonic history of the sedimentary rocks, and the relationships, petrogenesis and correlation of the associated igneous rocks, south of Moruya.

Miss H. Claire Weekes, Linnean Macleay Fellow of the Society in Zoology, commenced her work by studying four species of scincid lizards, her results being included in a paper, “A note on reproductive phenomena in some Lizards’, which appeared in the ProcEepines for 1927. In this paper she dealt with placentation, the growth of corpora lutea, and the extraordinary growth of extra-embryonic mesoderm in these lizards. She has also studied in detail placentation in Lygosoma (Hinulia) quoyi and placed the results on record in the PRocEEDINGS, with discussion of their bearing on the placentation of the Mammalia. Placentation has also been studied in two viviparous snakes and the results of this will probably be the first record of placentation among snakes.

Miss Weekes proposes, during the coming year, to continue the investigation of reptilian placentation with the ultimate aim of making a study of the evolution

of the reptilian placenta and of the extent of its bearing upon the placentation of the Mammalia.

Three applications for Linnean Macleay Fellowships, 1928-29, were received in response to the Council’s invitation of 28th September, 1927. I have pleasure in reminding you that the Council re-appointed Miss Ida Alison Brown and Miss

Hazel Claire Weekes to Fellowships in Geology and Zoology respectively for one year from 1st March, 1928.

\ IY f

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. ¥ Dra a, ey ix. i by as Ne ~~ ee

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS.

Host AND PARASITE. By the late Proressor L. Harrison, B.A., B.Sc.

i—Introductory.

I have chosen for the subject of my address the relation between organisms in obligate association under what I call here the host-parasite relation, a matter in which I have been interested for a good many years. The term parasite should, in strict accuracy, be confined to such organisms as live at the expense of their hosts, but I propose to use it loosely to indicate any obligate association, whether parasitic, commensal or symbiotic. Such an association links the parasite to its host in space, as is quite well realized, but curiously little attention has been given to the fact that there is also a linkage in time.

For many groups of parasites host and parasite have come down the ages together. I have dared to fix the origin of bird-lice from psocids as far back as the Jurassic, since there is strong evidence that these existed upon birds and mammals from their very origins, so soon as there were feathers and hair to be eaten. Down that long period of time each generation of hosts has handed on its parasites to its successors. Mammals and birds have changed their forms under the continuous process of evolution, and their lice have changed, too. But parasites in general live under conditions which afford little stimulus to evolutionary change, and so tend to differentiate at a slower rate than their hosts, suffering what I have called elsewhere a retarded evolution.

This relation can be made to serve several useful purposes. The ostriches of Africa and the rheas or nandus of South America are commonly supposed by ornithologists to have arisen from quite distinct stocks. But their lice are so similar, and so different from all other bird-lice, that these must have evolved from a common ancestor, and so also must the birds themselves. Evidence derived from lice is confirmed by the cestode and nematode parasites of the two groups of birds. Thus a phylogenetic relationship may be established by means of parasites. Equally, a supposed relationship may be refuted. Their lice prove that the penguins are in no way related to any northern group of aquatic birds, but belong in an ancient complex which includes the tinamous, fowls and pigeons; that the kiwis of New Zealand are modified rails, and not struthious birds at all; that the tropic-birds are not steganopodes but terns, and so on. A third use is to refute suggestions of convergent resemblance, which are often very lightly made, and which are so exasperating to the zoogeographer since they are usually incapable of either proof or disproof. Leptodactylid frogs are found in South America and Australia. Did they evolve separately, or are they derived from common ancestors? The herpetologist cannot say with any certainty, but the parasitologist discovers that they share a genus, Zelleriella, of ciliate protozoan parasites, and must have had common origin. This same example will serve to illustrate a fourth use for the host-parasite relation. The genus Zelleriella can, and does, infest frogs other than Leptodactylids. It is not found, however, anywhere except in Australia and South and Central America, so that its distribution affords strong presumptive evidence that South America and Australia have been joined in past time in some way which excluded the northern land masses.

These examples indicate the nature of the host-parasite relation, and its

possible usefulness. I propose now to give a short historical account, and to B

x. PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS.

follow with an examination of some groups of parasites to see how far this usefulness may be of general application.

ii.—Historical.

Since the relation between host and parasite is so obvious, it is remarkable that it has received so little attention. I have searched in vain amongst such textbooks of general parasitology as have come under my notice for any reference to it. It seems incredible that there should not be references in serial literature, but, until quite recent times, I have not been able to trace any. This may be due to the fact that such references, if there be any, occur in papers the titles of which give no indication of this aspect of their contents.

Be that as it may, the earliest use of the host-parasite relation to suggest phyletic affinities which I have been able to trace is that by Zschokke, who in a series of papers (1898, 1899, 1907) upon the cestodes of marsupials, has insisted that the common possession of cestodes of the genus Linstowia by South American and Australian marsupials clearly indicated their origin from common stock. Two of Zschokke’s papers have not been accessible to me, and I have gathered their content from certain criticisms of Zschokke’s views by Nybelin (1917). The latter’s criticisms do not seem particularly well founded. They are based chiefly upon