; " AT-ARMS SERIES ryrcHRMACHT

AUXILIARY FORCES

i

EDITOR: MARTIN WINDROW

MEN-AT-ARMS SERIES Ag] WEHRMACHT AUXILIARY FORCES

Text by NIGEL THOMAS and CARLOS CABALLERO JURADO Colour plates by SIMON McCOUAIG

First published in Great Britain in 1992 by Osprey Publishing, Elms Gourt, Chapel Way, Botley, Oxford OX2 gLP, United Kingdom. Email: info@ospreypublishing.com

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Authors’ acknowledgements ‘This survey would not have been possible without the kind and unselfish assistance of many knowledgeable correspondents, friends and agencies. The authors. would like to thank: Dr. Baumgarten, Bundesarchiv Koblenz; Philip Buss; Josef Charita; Brian L. Davis; Dieter Deuster; David Littlejohn; Hans Werner Neulen; Henry Riiiitel; Franz W. Seidler and Henry L. de Zeng IV. Nigel Thomas would like to thank his ever-supportive family—Heather, Alexander and Dominick.

Any corrections or additional information would be most welcome, and may be addressed to the authors via the Publishers’ address.

WEHRMACHT AUXILIARY TROOPS

INTRODUCTION

In 1938 Adolf Hitler directed two paramilitary labour organizations the Reichsarbeitsdienst, recruits undergoing pre-military training; and Organisation Todt, a unique mobiliz~ ation of private construction firms—to support the armed forces (Wehrmacht) in their duties. Hard-pressed transport and supply units were further aided by the NSKK, the Nazi motoring organization, and, from 1944, by the Transportkorps Speer Finally, in September 1944, with military defeat looming, all manpower with any military potential was drafted into the Deutscher Volkssturm, ‘These organizations were designated *Wehrmachtsgefolge’ (Armed Forces Auxiliaries) to give their members protection under the Geneva Convention if taken prisoner, The total strength of these organizations was about 1,200,000 in 1939, peaking in 1944 at about 3,800,000 40% of the size of the armed forces. Although units were generally rior to their armed forces equivalents, their contribution to the war-effort was far from negligible

Determined that these Auxiliaries should not achieve armed forces status, Hitler decreed in r941 that their uniforms should not be Army field-grey; that they should wear rank insignia on collar-patches, not shoulder-straps; and that their organization identification badge should be worn on the upper sleeve, not on the right breast. These orders were only partially obeyed:

in

NSKK-Korpstiihrer Mahnlein, with Army Generals Fiirth (centre) eed Fromm (right), and smembers of NSKK Regiment 73, in September 936. Hiihniein wears his Sll-dress uniform with epi, and SA brown shirt woth Veteran’s sleeve ‘ebevron and ‘Blood Order? eedal, awarded to ‘perticipants in Hitler's Sesuccessful coup in Manich on 9 November ee. (Josef Charita)

personnel, considering themselves increasingly to be members of the overall armed forces, introduced uniform and insignia modifications which, especially in the case of the NSKK and Transportkorps Speer, made them virtually indistinguishable from their comrades in the four armed services

THE NSKK

In 1928 the SA (Stormtroopers—see MAA 220, The SA 1921-45), formed Motor Transport Detachments, which were designated Motor SA on 1 April 1930. Then, on 1 May 1931, the K (Nazionalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps— National Socialist Motor Transport Corps) was established by Korpsfith- rer Adolf Hiihnlein as a branch of the SA, from the 3,000-strong NSAK (Nazionalsozialistisches Automobilkorps) set up on 1 April 1930 to transport top Nazi offi

On 23 August 1934, with the SA in decline after the potentially rebellious leadership had been purged in Hitler's Night of the Long Knives, the NSKK became an independent organization, absorbing the Motor-SA (now with Motor Battalions —Motorstaffeln, attached to SA Brigades) and also the DDAC (German Automobile Club) established in 1933 by:a forcible amalgamation of civilian motoring organizatio

As a subordinate branch of the Nazi Party, the NSKK’s mission was the control of all motoring activities in Germany, the promotion of motor transport, and the indoctrination of the public in National Socialism. It ran six-week driving and mechanics courses at its 23 Motor Sport Schools (plus the National School at Déberitz-Elsgrund); and by 1938 187,000 members of the motorized section of the Hitler Youth, the Motor-HJ, had graduated from these schools, It promoted and organized tourism by car in Germany and abroad, ran motor racing events, and established highway patrols to help the Police enforce traffic regulations. Membership was voluntary, and part- time for all but senior ranks

In 1934 the 350,000-strong NSKK comprised four divisions and 19 brigades (including the Ostmark Brigade in then independent Austria) toralling about 90 regiments, formerly Motor-SA battalions. A division (Motorgruppe) contained about rigade (Motorbrigade) about three regiments. A regiment (Motorstandarte) usually had three to six battalions, a battalion (Motorstaffel) three to ten companies, a company (Motorsturm) three to four platoons, a platoon (‘Trupp) three to four sections, and a section (Schar) cight to 16 men.

By 1939 most brigades had become divisions, and new units were raised from the occupied Austrian, Czech and Polish territories. There were 500,000 men in 28 divisions and one brigade—a total of 100 regiments plus four Motorboat Regi- ments (Motorbootstandarten) to assist the River Police, all organized in eight Corps Districts (Motorobergruppen).

In September 1939 the NSKK assumed new responsibilities to support the German war-effort. From 27 January 1939 NSKK-Wehrstaffeln (Defence Battalions) were forming, paral- leling the SA-Wehrmannschaften (SA Defence Teams); and by 1943 200,000 Army recruits for motor transport (Fahrtruppen) and armoured units had taken the five-month pre-military driving and mechanics courses. Engineer assault-boat crews were trained by the Motorboat Battalions.

4

NSKK personnel from Regiment 3o inspect an engine in 1939. Note the commemorative regimental sleeve title, and the rank insignia on the right side of the black cap. (Brian Davis)

In summer 1940 the NSKK Regiment Luftwaffe, soon redesignated NSKK Transportregiment Luftwaffe, was formed ro deliver munitions to forward airfields in France. In December 1940 it expanded to become NSKK Transportbrigade Luftwaffe; and in January 1942 reached divisional strength as NSKK Gruppe Luftwaffe, redesignated NSKK Motorgruppe Luftwaffe ‘on 11 May 1942 and NSKK Transportgruppe Luftwaffe in July 1943. The division, under Lt.Gen. Graf von Bayer- Ehrenberg, recruited 4,000 Belgians (3,000 Flemish and 1,000 Walloons, from the AGRA and Rex political parties); about 2,000 French and 4,000 Dutch recruits also joined NSKK units.

Each brigade, with 6,100 men and 2,758 vehicles, contained three 2,014-strong regiments; ¢ ment (Regiment) had two to three g85-man battalions. A battalion (Abteilung) contained three companies (Kompanien) or 313-man Main Columns (Hauptkolonnen) divided into three platoons (Ziige) or ten 28- man ‘columns’ (Kolonnen) respectively, sometimes with Special Columns (Sonderkolonnen) under the regimental staff.

t Brigade (Maj.Gen. Vogel), with Regiments 1-3, formed in France in summer 1941, remaining there, as its personnel were unfit for service on the Eastern Front, In late 1943 the Brigade Staff was demoted ‘to Brigade z.b.V. status and its regiments detached. 1st Regiment, now with Flemings, Dutch and AGRA Walloons in the 3rd Bn., and French in the 4th-6th Special Columns, merged with 2nd Regiment, and in 1944 retreated with 3rd Regiment eastwards 4th and 6th Special Columns fought at ‘Arnhem—and by rags were in Germany. 2nd Brigade (Brig. Hans Keller) formed in May 1941 at Diest, eastern Belgium, with a German cadre and Flemish (4th Regt.) and Dutch (sth Reet ) personnel; 6th Regt., with French, Dutch, Plemish and AGRA 2nd Rex Walloons, was added in April 1942. Irserved im occupied Poland until December 1941 and from May 10¢2 @ Ulesee ted Ba. 6th Regt. was lost fighting as infantry bahar rrared fe Diest in March 1943 where the Bewade Geteeded Subsequently 4th Regt. served in

NSKK personnel line up for inspection in 1939. Note the combined NSKK eagle and Veteran’s chevron on the right upper sleeve, and the rank insignia arrangement worn on the sidecap by the lieutenant colonel at far right.

(Brian Davis)

Yugos! in the W hate 1944.

NSKK Staffel Wehrmachtbefehlshaber Niederlande (NSKK Battalion Armed Forces Commander Netherlands) was engaged from October 1943 until 10 November 1944 0n internal security duties, with German and Dutch personnel. Finally, in March 1945, NSKK Transportkompanien(Flak) 1-3, NSKK Kraftwagenziige (transport platoons) 1-9, and 69 NSKK Kolon- men (11-22, 24-25, 101-134, 203-4, 211-5, 301-310, 361-4) were allocated to the Air Force

The largest wartime NSKK formation was Transport- gruppe Todt (Transport Division ‘Todt’) formed on 22 July e942 by Maj.Gen. Wilhelm el from the NSKK Transport- eruppe ‘Todt’ (containing NSKK ‘Transportbrigade Todt and NSKK Transportbrigade Speer), and Legion Speer. In October x942 the division totalled 70,000 men; by September 1043, el also controlled Transportflotte Speer (Transport Fleet ‘Speer’. In June 1944 these units became NSKK Trans- portkorps Speer.

a, Hungary and Eastern Germany; 5th Regt. remained ; and 6th Regt. fought in Yugoslavia, disbanding in

Albert Speer and the NSKK. Albert Speer, ‘Architect-General for the Renovation of Berlin’, set up the NSKK Baustab Speer (NSKK Construction Staff Speer) in 1938 to transport building materials to Berlin, and, from August 1939, to build airfields in Germany, under the sspervision of his Baustab Speer. In May 1940 the unit was renamed NSKK Transportstandarte Speer and in June 1041, now with 1st-3rd Regiments, NSKK Transportbrigade S The brigade eventually contained 10 Motor Transport Reats.; each regiment (NSKK Kraftwagen Transportregiment {Speer)) had a number of companies (Kompanien), sometimes ssouped into battalions (Abteilungen). Seven regiments (Nos. 6, 10) were ed to transport munitions from Speer’s Sectories to Air Force units, three (7-9) to Army units. rst-3rd,

Sth and oth Regts. served on the Eastern Front—rst Bn., 3rd Regt. was lost at Stalingrad, th and 6th in Croatia, 7th in Italy, roth in Finland and 4th in North Africa—the only Nazi Party formation to do so. The brigade also included NSKK Transpor- tabteilungen 496-500, formed in 1941, and probably reallocated later to sth, 6th and roth Regts; NSKK Brigade Speer Kraftwagenabschnitt Siid (Motor District South), formed in March 1944 with four battalions for Nothern Italy; and OT- Regiment Speer, formed in 1942 on construction duties in the Ruhr distri ‘The Organisation Todt employed NSKK personnel from its lishment in June 1938, when ‘Westmark’ Motor Division atch-riders carried messages from OT Headquarters in Wiesbaden to the Westwall fortifications on the western frontier. From September 1938 NSKK Verkehrskompanien (‘Traflie Companies) transported materials and machinery in 15,000 lorries, and 200,000 workers in 5,000 buses to 22,000 building- sites—a total of two million journeys per month, ‘Then in September 1939 the 1,600 NSKK personnel working for the OT formed the NSKK Transportstandarte Todt regiment, supply- ing OT and Army units in the French campaign, even under enemy fire. In May 1040 the unit expanded to form NSKK ‘Transportbrigade Todt, taking over all OT transport duties.

From 1942 the brigade attached a staff (NSKK Kraftwagen- leitung bei OT Einsatzgruppe ...) to each OT Corps (OT- Finsatzgruppe) operating in rear areas, and four ‘special staffs’ (NSKK Kraftwagenleitungen beim OT Verbindungsfithrer) for Eastern Front forward areas. The staffs controlled ‘Transport Battalions (Transportstaffeln) with Main Columns and Inde- pendent Main Columns (Transporthauptkolonnen). In spring 1943 cach staff became a Sector Command (Abschnittsfithrung), one per OT Corps, with battalions (Abteilungen), companies (Kompanien) and Main Columns

Abschnittsfuhrung ‘West’, the largest command, admini- stered France, Belgium and Netherlands; ‘Wiking’, Denmark

5

and Norway; ‘Siidost’, Greece, Yugoslavia, Albania, Rumania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Slovakia, ‘Russland-Nord’ covered the Baltic States and Northern Russia, ‘Russland-Mitte’ Byelorussia and Central Russia, and ‘Russland-Siid’ (from June 1944 ‘Siid’) Ukraine and Southern Russia. ‘Jacob-Nord’, ‘Jacob-Mitte’ and ‘Jacob-Siid’ controlled Northern, Central and Southern forward areas, but were absorbed into the corresponding rear area command in 1943 as the Germans retreated westwards. ‘Kauka- sien’ administered the Caucasus. Four smaller commands Motor Transport Battalions (NSKK Kraftwagen-Transport- abteilungen) were formed in Norway (‘Wiking’), Finland (Finnland’), Southern Russia (‘Russland-Sitd’) and Northern Italy (‘Siid’), but were later reallocated within NSKK Trans- portgruppe Todt.

In September 1944, with most foreign territory recaptured by the Allies, the OT reorganized in Germany proper, and the

et’) in Western Germany; ‘Reich’ in Northern, Central uthern Germany; ‘Tannenberg’ in Danzig, East and West Prussia; and ‘Brugmann’, occupied Poland. Other commands were retained or reorganized.

Non-German organisation From 22 July 1942 non-Germans were organized into bat talions (Abteilungen) and companies (Kompanien) of Legion Speer and assigned to OT Corps ‘West’, Recruiting was so successful, especially among Russian emigrés in France and Soviet prisoners-of-war, that in 1943 the I Bn, (Companies 1-7) (Companies 1-7) transferred to NSKK Transport- gruppe Todt as Transportstaffeln 67 and 69, and henceforth Legion Speer companies were integrated into Sector Command battalions. The five Legion Speer recruiting di ach witha

Motorobergruppe Alpenland MB Tirol-Vorarlberg (MS 92, 192). Motorobergruppe Mitte MG Berlin (MS

Anhalt (MS 135); MG Mark-Brandenburg (MS 22 62-3, 160) | Motorobergruppe Nord MB Hamburg (MS 12 Ostsee (MS 7-10, 108); MG Schle Motorobergruppe Nordost Wartheland (MS 114-6, 124-6, 144) Motorobergruppe Ost MG Leipzig (MS 35-9, 137 Oberschlesien (MS 17, 117, 119, 121, 123). Motorobergruppe Siid MG Bayernwald Hiihnlein, formerly ‘Hochland’ (MS 84-7. Motorobergruppe Si Sudeten, formerly Motorobergruppe Siidwest Mb4); MG Westmark (MS 51, 149-31, 153, 161-7). Motorobergruppe West 64-6); MG Westfalen-Siid (MS 67-9) NSKK Transportgruppe Luftwaffe (1943)

, 181),

‘Transportbrigade Speer—Kw.Tr.Rgt. 1 (Kp. 1-9); 2

‘Transportbrigade ‘Todt:

NSKK Kw.Ltg bei OT-EG ... (1941-2/3)

West (*1941) Tr.St. 7-9, 15, 19, 21, 22, 20, 34, 36, 37; THK 3, 4, 6-8, 14-5.

Wiking (*Summer 1942) —Tr.St. 44-5 ; THK 9, 10, 19, 20.

Siidost (*Summer 1942)—Tr.St.

THK

Russland-Nord (*Summer 1942) PHK 2, 17-8.

Tr.St. 16,

MB Kiirnten (MS go, 190); MB Salzburg (MS 91, 191

Mbr); MG Franken (MS 78, 79, 83, 95, 187); MG Magdeburg- , 26, 112, 122); MG Niederrhein (MS 71-6); MG Nordsee (MS

3); MB Hansa (MS 11, 111); MG Niedersachsen (MS 58-61); MG wig-Holstein (MS 14-6 MG Danzig-Westpreussen (MS

8, 141); MG Niederschlesien (MS 18-9, 21, 118, 120); MG

firstly ‘Bayrische Ostmark’, then ‘Bayreuth’ (MS 77, 80-2, 181); MG Adolf st MG Oberdonau (MS 99, 100, 199, 299); MG Niederdonau (MS 96-8, 196-7, 296, 396); MG :gerland’ (MS 200-15, 313); MG Wien (MS 93~4, 1934, Mb3)

MG Rhein-Mosel (MS 52, 152); MB Schwaben (MS 87); MG Stidwest (MS

MG Hessen (MS 46~50, 146-8); MG Thiringen (MS 4o~5, 142); MG Westfalen-Nord (MS

Brigade 1—Ret. 1 (I/Kp. 13; Il/Kp. 4-6; IIT/Kp. 7-9; SK 4-6); Ret. 2 (I/Kp. 1 | 4-6). | Brigade 2—Rgt. 4 Plandern’ (I/HK 13; II/HK 4-6); Rgt. 5 ‘Nederland? (I/HK 13; II/HK 4-6); Rgt. 6 (I/HK 1-3; II/HIK 4-6). NSKK Transportgruppe Todt

2(Kp. 1-11); 3 (Kp. 1-9); 4 (Kp. 1-9); 5 (Kp. 1-11); 6 (I/Kp. 1-73 I/Kp. 8 14) 7 (Kp. 1-18); 8 (I/Kp. 1-4; H/Kp. 5—8; III/Kp. 9-12; IV/Kp. 13-6; V/Kp. 17-20; Kp

. 5-8; ILL/Kp. 9-12; [V/Kp. 13-6; V/Kp. 17-20); 10 (Kp. 1-14); Kw.Abt.Siid (50/Kp. 1-7; 51/Kp. 8-14; Kp. 22-8); Tr.Abt, 496-S00; OT-Rgt. Speer (Kp. 1-5).

2. Speer (1.11.1044)

NSKK Abschnittsfiihrung (1942/3-4) OT-EG.

West (*Spring 1943)—Tr.St. 1-10, 21, 29, 34, West 60-73—TK Speer (1.11.1944)

Wiking (*Spring 1943)—Abt. I-VI (Kp. 1-26); Wiking THK 1-20—TK Speer (1.11.1944).

Siidost (*Spring 1943)—Abt. 40-2; Kp. 1-13—TK —_Siidost

Russland-Nord (*Spring 1943)—Abt. I (Kp. 1-3), I Russland- (6-10), ITT (11-4), IV (15-9); THK 17-8—A.F. Nord

Tannenberg (early 1944)

); MB Steiermark (MS 88, 89, 188);

15). 6, 105-6, 130); MG Ostland (MS 1-4, 1014, 233); MG

53-4, 155-9,

3; L/Kp. 4-6); Ret. 3 (I/Kp. 1-3; I/Kp.

159 (IRD. 4s

depot battalion (in Kiey a regiment), were retained. Foreigners could also enlist as drivers or mechanics on short-term contracts as NSKK Freiwillige (NSKK Volunteers).

‘Transportflotte Speer was formed in 1937 by Speer to transport stone along the Spree, Havel and Elbe rivers to Berlin. In 1941 the Fleet, with 10,000 personnel, mostly Norwegians, including 280 barges originally intended for the invasion of Great Britain, was attached to OT Corps ‘Wiking’. Headquarters was moved from Berlin to Groningen, Netherlands, and Grosska- pitin Seyd, a shipping owner, held nominal command. Allied bombing of road communications enhanced the importance of shipping, and by July 1944 the Fleet controlled over 2,000 vessels {500,000 tonnage), serving a network of 31 coastal and inland ports in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Rumania and Soviet Union,

In September 1939 the NSKK Verkehrserziehungsdienst

(Traffic Control Service) replaced traffic police drafted into the armed forces and Police battalions for the Polish campaign. From December 1939 four traffic units—Verkehrsstandarte ‘Wien’, Verkehrsstaffel ‘Berlin’ and ‘Gross-Hamburg’, and Verkehr- skompanie ‘Lemberg’—helped comb forests for guerrillas and carried dispatches in Poland, Later at least eight traffic companies—‘Berlin’, ‘Dortmund’, ‘Kattowitz’, ‘Kauen’, ‘Niirn- berg’, ‘Posen’, ‘Stuttgart’ and ‘Wien’ —were assigned to Police battalions or local Police commanders in the Soviet Union. Motorboat units supported Rhine and Danube Police patrols, and NSKK personnel patrolled highways, arrested vagrants and escaped prisoners-of-war, and issued driving licences on behalf of the Police.

‘The NSKK was also active on the home front, Following the Navi-Soviet Pact of August 1939 Lt.Gen, Lorenz resettled 200,000 Ethnic Germans from Soviet-oceupied Poland, Baltic

NSKK Kw.Ltg bei OT-EG ... (1941/3)

Russland-Mitte (*Summer 1942) Tr.St. 40-1, 46, 47; THK 12, 16.

Russland-Sid ("Summer 1942) —Tr.St. 48-9.

NSKK Abschnittsfithrung (1942/3—4) OT-EG. Russland-Mitte (*Spring 1943) —Abt. I-V (Kp. Russland- 1-37) Kw. Tr.Rgt. 8 (1.7.1944). Mitte Russland-Siid (*Spring 1943)— Abt. I-V (Kp. 1-6, Russland-

11-13, 22-3, 31 F.Siid (10.6.1944). Std Siid (*Autumn 1943)—Kp. 1-10 Kw.Abt.Siid Italien (1.3-1944). Ruhr (5.1943, then ‘Ruhrgebier’, 15.12.1944 1, V

“Hansa’) Abt. I-V—TK Speer (1.11.1944). Reich (*5.1943) 33 Tannenberg (*early 1944) Kp. 1-33—TK Speer

(1.11.19 44).

Brugmann (*1.7.1944)—TK Speer (1.11.1944). Brugmann Siid (*10.6.1944)—Abt. 30 ~37—-TK Speer VII (111.1944). NSKK Kw.Ltg.beim OT-Verbf. Nord (*Summer 1942)—Tr.St. 5, 14, 23; Jacob-Nord (*12.1942)— Abt. I (Kp. 1-4); TI (Kp. Jacob THK 1. 5-8); III (Kp. 9-12); IV (Kp. 13-14) —A.F. Russland-Nord (21.9.1943). Mitte (“Summer 1942)—Tr.St. 1, 11-3, 18, Jacob-Mitte (#12.1942)—Tr.St. 1, 11-3, 18, 325 Jacob 32: THK 5. ‘THK 5—A.F. Russland-Mitte (21.9.1943). Siid A (*Summer 1942)—Tr-St. 2, 4,6, 20, 28; Kaukasien (*Spring 1943)—Abt. I-V—A.F. Siid Kaukasien THK 13. (10.6.1944). Sud B(*Summer 1942)— Tr.St. 3, 17, 25. Jacob-Siid (12.1942) —Tr-St. 3, 17, 25 —A.P. Jacob Russland-Siid (Spring 1943). NSKK Kw.Tr.Abt.bei OT. Wiking (*Summer 1942)—Kp. 1-10 Wiking (*Spring 1943)—Kp. 1-10—A.F. Wiking Wiking (22.8.1943). Finnland (*Summer 1942)—Kp. 1-4. Finnland (*Spring 1943)—Kp. 1-4 Kw.Tr.Rgt. Finnland 10(Todt) (Summer 1943). Siid (*Summer 1943) Kp. -10—A.F. Sid Italien (Autumn 1943). Russland-Siid (*Autumn 1942)—Kp. 1-15 AF. Russland- Russland-Siid (Summer 1943). Siid

Legion Speer, 1943 (attached Sector Commands).

Leg.Sp. West (HQ Paris)—Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, French, Russians, Ukra Leg. Sp. Norwegen (HQ Oslo)—Danes, Dutch, Flemish, Norwegians, Swedes (A.F. Wiking).

Leg.Sp. Siidost (HQ Belgrade) French, Walloons (A.F. Siidost).

Leg. Sp. Ost (HQ Kiev) ~ Bulgarians, Croats, Czechs, Danes, French, Norwegians, Serbs, Swedes, Slovaks, Walloons (A.P.

Russland-Nord/ Mitte/Siid; Kaukasus).

Leg.Sp. Reich (HQ Berlin-Nikolassee)— Dutch, Flemish (A.F. Reich).

Kp. —TK Speer (1.111944). TI, TV, VI, VITT I

(AF. West).

States, Bessarabia and Bukovina in ‘Wartheland’ West Poland

By 1942 NSKK strength had fallen to 220,000 as personnel joined the armed forces. Transport units delivered post, food, Ivage and raw materials, and the NSKK Katastrophendienst ergency Service) carried out heavy-rescue, evacuation and debris-clearance duties after Allied bombings. In Carniola (Southern Austria) and Lower Styria (occupied Slove- nia) NSKK Wehrmannschaften (Home Guard Companies) fought Slovene guerrillas alongside SA Styrian Home Defence League units. By 1945 NSKK personnel were being drafted into Volkssturm battalions and NSKK Kampfgruppen (battle groups)

occupied

ambulance,

Members of NSKK- Transportbrigade Todt, with olive brown uniforms and Army Mig4o canvas anklets, unloading supplies from a lorry in France, 1943. Note the aluminium sagle on the left collar patch, (Brian Davis)

NSKK-Korpsfithrer Kraus (right), wearing the NSDAP Party badge, Iron Cross 1st Class, Wound Badge and 1914-18 Bavarian Air Observer's badge, talks to Corporal Georg Rietscher, holder of the Knight’s Cross with Oak-Leaves; Berlin, ; May 1943. (Josef Charita)

8

Adolf Hithnlein died on 18 June 1942 and was succeeded as Korpsfiihrer by Erwin Kraus. By 6 June 1944 Motordivision names and boundaries were to be altered to correspond to NSDAP Districts, except ‘Adolf Hiihnlein’, retained for reasons of tradition, and ‘Niederrhein’, which covered Diisseldorf, Essen and Kéln-Aachen districts. The war ended before this reorganiz- ation, which necessitated reallocation of the 200 understrength regiments between the divisions, was fully implemented.

NSKK leaders skilfully capitalized on the organization's military value to build a huge transport network which perfor- med a vital function in sustaining the German wa rt, a contribution which has been undervalued in post-war studies of the Second World War

TRANSPORT- KORPS SPEER

By early 1944 the commander of NSKK Transportgruppe Todt, Maj.Gen. Wilhelm Nagel, was actively plotting with Reichsmin- ister Speer to free his division from NSKK control—a strategy his angry superior, Korpsfiihrer Kraus, was powerless to prevent

In June 1944 NSKK Transportkorps Speer was estab- lished from NSKK Transportgruppe Todt, ‘Transportflotte Speer and Legion Speer. Sector (Abschnitt) ‘Brugmann’, and Sector Commands (Abschnittsfihrungen) ‘Wiking’, ‘West’, iidost’, ‘Tannenberg’, ‘Sid’, ‘Ruhrgebiet’, ‘Reich’ and ‘Russland-Nord’ (absorbed in September 1944 into ‘Brug- mann”), divided into Motor Transport Battalions (Kraftwagen Transportabteilungen) and Companies (Kompanien) and Inde- pendent Battalions (Krafifahr ‘Transportststaffeln), supplied Organisation Todt units. Transport Regiments 2 and 3, divided into battalions and companies, supplied the Air Force; Regiments

5-10, later also 11-12, the Army. There were also Depot Battalions (Ersatzabteilungen);, two Vehicle Repair Regiments Krafifahr-Instandsetzungs-regimenter); an Ordnance Staff Riistungsstab) with rr companies distributed regionally; an Engineer Bn. (Pionierabteilung), Signals Bn. (Nachrichtenstaf- fl), motorized Medical Bn, (Sanititskraftfahrstaffel), motorized Security Bn. (Sicherungsabteilung(mot)); vehicle parks, an officers’ school at Konitz near Weimar, an NCO School at Furstenwalde near Berlin, and OT-Regiment Speer in the Ruhr. Transportflotte Speer supplied the Navy

On 31 July 1944 Transport Sectors (‘Transportabschnitte) E-VIIT were formed, absorbing ‘Ruhrgebiet’ and ‘Reich’ s Commands, covering Greater Germany and the Baltic States although Sector Command I (Riga, Latvia) was almost immedi- ately transferred to Berlin, when the Baltic fell to the Red Army The Commands corresponded in name and approximate extent wo the newly formed OT Corps Districts. In August 1944 the Corps was reorganized into four divisional-status Inspections. Inspektion ‘Reich’ (formed 8 August) covered North, Central uthern Germany and Bohemia-Moravia; and was followed by ‘West’—Western and Southern Germany; Eastern Germany and occupied Poland; and ‘Siid’ Austria, Northern [taly and Northern Yugosla Sector Com- mand ‘Wiking’ remained under direct OT command. Each Inspection supervised regimental-status Transport Sectors, Sec sors or Sector Commands, whose commanding officers (Absch- irtsfuhrer) were attached to the local OT Corps staff.

On 12 September 1944 the Corps, under Lt.Gen. (Korp-

ector

the background, two NSKK officers with blank right hand collar patches, (Josef Charita)

Gen. Heinz Guderian, 2nd Panzer Army commander, talks to NSKK- Transportbrigade Todt personnel, Russia, 1941; in

skommandant) Nagel, was formally transferred to armed forces control and on 1 November, as an independent organization, dropped NSKK from its title. Transportkorps Speer (HQ Kreuzbruch) comprised 47,727 men, including 17,000 Germans, 20,000 foreign volunteers and 800 foreign auxiliaries (Hilfswil- lige), with more than 35,000 trucks— including 5,066 unde ector Command ‘Wiking’, 5,953 with Inspektion ‘Siid’, 11,990 with Inspektion ‘Reich’ and in the Medical Service

In February 1945 the Corps was again reorganized, this time into six Supply Commands (Intendante): four from the existing Inspections, plus Intendant ‘Wiking’, covering Norway and Denmark, and Intendant Ersatz und Ausbildung (Depot and Training Command). rst Transport Brigade (1. Fahr-brigade) was planned, but only the ist Bn., rst Regt. and Depot Bn. were actually formed

‘Transportkorps Speer units served on all fronts and frequ- ently saw action. In March 1945 Transport Regiment 5 (Col. Schénherr), with 160 trucks and 600 men, suffered heavy losses fighting as infantry against Yugoslav partisans near Biha Western Bosnia.

On 17 April 1945 the Corps, now much reduced by losses, underwent its final reorganization. The remaining nine ‘Trans- port Sectors, one Sector Command, five Transport Regiments and smaller units were grouped into three brigades ‘Nord’ (Norway, Denmark, Northern Germany), ‘Mitte’ (Central Ger- many and Bohemia-Moravia) and ‘Siid’ (Austria, Italy, Northern Yugoslavia), plus a Depot and Training Regiment

Three weeks later Nazi Germany surrendered. ‘Transport- korps Speer personnel were treated under the Geneva Conven- tion as prisoners-of-war, thus avoiding the harsher treatment accorded their former NSKK colleagues, who were branded as members of a criminal organization.

A Flemish member of NSKK-Transportgruppe fe, wearing the

carrying an MP4o sub- machine gun. (Josef Charita)

Luftwaffi ‘Strcifendienst’ gorget and

NSKK-Maj.Gen. Graf von Bayer-Ehrenburg (Iefi), commander of NSKK- Transportbrigade

ty affe, with fellow 01 ‘s and Dr. Hendrik E ead of the

Flemish VNV party; Diest, Belgium, 10 June 1941. Note the combined eagle and Veteran’s badge worn

(Josef Charita)

September 1944-February 1945

Insp. Reich (Berlin): Tr.Ab. ‘Berlin’ (Berlin-Charlottenburg) —Ers.Abt. 1, II, Riistungsstab, San.Kw.St., Nachr.St.: Tr.Ab II (Berlin-Wannsee): Tr.Ab. [1b ‘Hansa’ (Bremen): Tr. Ab, IV ‘Kyffhiuser’ (Weimar) —112 & 113 Abt./Kw.Tr.Ret. 11: ‘Tr.Ab. VI (Munich): Tr.Ab. VII (Prague) —Kw.Tr.St. 125, 1, PiAbt

Insp. West (Essen-Werden}: Tr.Ab, Ula ‘Rhein-Ruhr’ (Essen-Werden)—Tr.Rgt. 6 (Abt. I, II), OT-Rgt. Speer: Tr.Ab. V (Heidelberg) IIL Abt./Kw.Tr.Rgt. 11

Insp. Ost (Poznan): Ab. ‘Tannenberg’ (Rastenburg)—Tr.Rgt. 3 (Kp. 1-11), 8 (Abt. I-V), .Kfz.Inst. Rgt. ‘Ost’; Ab. “Brugmann’ (Ottmachau).

Insp. Siid (Brescia): ‘Vr.Ab. VII (Villach-Warmbad)—2.Kfz.Inst.Rgt. ‘Ost’: A.P. ‘Siidost’ (Pinkafeld)—Tr.Rgt. 5 (Kp. 1-11): A.P. ‘Sitd’ (Stern) —Tr.Rgt. 2 (Kp. 1-11), 7 (Kp. 1-18), Ers.Abt. I, I

1.P, Wiking (Oslo): Kw.Tr.Rgt. 10 (Kp. 1-14)

February-16 April 1945 Tr.Ab. II ‘Berlin’ (Berlin-Wannsee)—Riistungsstab, 1. Pahrbrig.: Tr.Ab. IIb ‘Hansa’ (Bremen): ‘Tr.Ab. IV 'r.Ab. VI (Munich): Tr.Ab. VII ‘Brugmann’ (Prague) Kw.Tr.Ret. 12, Kw.Tr.Abt. 125

.Ab. Ila ‘Rhein-Ruhr’ (Essen-Werden)—Kw.Tr.Rgt. 6, Kw.Tr.St. 60, OT-Rgt. Speer: Tr.Ab. V berg) —Kw.Tr.Abt. 111, 114.

Ab. [“Tannenberg’— Kw.Tr.Rgt. 3, 8 (Abt. 82, 84), 9 (Abt. 8 Int. Siid: Tr.Abt. Sid (Villach-Warmbad)—Kw.Tr.Abt. 50-2, Ers.Abt. (Pinkafeld)—Kw.Tr.Abt. 4o~4, 113, Kw.Tr-Rgt. 5: Tr-Ab. VITI

Int. Nord: Tr.Ab. Wiking —Exs.Abt. Wiking. Int. Ers.u.Aush.: Ers. Abt. 1, 1, Fahrbrig. Ers. Abt

3, 85, 91-5), 1. Kfz.Inst.Rgt., Sich. Abt, (mot). Siid I, Il, Kw.Tr.Rgt. 2, 7: Tr.Ab, Siidost

17 April-8 May 1945

Brigade Nord: Tr.Ab. Wiking (Oslo): Tr.Ab. IT ‘Berlin’ (Wrack, bei Kellinghusen)—Kw.Tr.Rgt. 3, Kw.Abt. ‘Ost’: Tr.Ab. Illa ‘Rhein-Ruhr’ (Essen-Werden): Tr.Ab. IIIb ‘Hansa’ (Hamburg-Wedel).

Brigade Mitte: Tr.Rgt. 6, 9: Tr.Ab. IV (Weimar): Tr.Ab. V (Heidelberg) —Kw.Tr.Abt. 111, 114: Tr.Ab. VI (Munich): Tr.Ab. VII ‘Brugmann’ (Prague),

Brigade Siid: Tr.Abt. Sid —Kw.Tr.Rgt. 2, 7, Kw.Tr.Abt. 113, 2. Kp/Sich. Abt.(mot): Tr.Ab. Siidost.

Ers.u Aush.Rgts Exs.Abt. I, I

REICHSARBEITS- DIENST

From April 1925 over 200 work camps were established shoughout Germany by political, church and youth groups and county authorities, so that civic improvement schemes could be completed by young yoluntcers prevented by the Treaty of Versailles from doing military service, and by men thrown out of work by the economic collapse of May 1930.

On 5 June 1931 Chancellor Briining authorized the Volun- sary Labour Service (Freiwilliger Arbeitsdienst-FAD) with Col. Konstantin Hierl as Staatssekretir. Hier! absorbed the work camps into this national organization which, in August 1933, following Hitler's seizure of power, became the National Socialist Labour Service (NSAD) and, on 11 July 1934, the State Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst-RAD), divided into RAD/M (RAD/Manner) for men, and RADJ/wJ (RAD der weibliche Jugend) for women.

From 26 June 1935 all non-Jewish men aged 18-20 (25 at the Latest) had to complete six months’ service in the RAD/M before their two years’ military service (reintroduced 21 May 1935) RAD/M contained conscripts and ‘volunteers’ (reporting for at least one year’s service) under a cadre of professional line officers and NCOs who had completed their military service, There were also professional legal officers, medical and administrative cadres, bandmasters and, from February 1944, specialist line, admini- strative and (from October 1941) war correspondent cadres without military training, appointed as RAD-Sonderfiihre

The RAD/M was organized in 1938 in Divisional Districts (Arbeitsgaue) I-XXXIT, each under a brigadier, with a staff, HQ Guard Company (Wachabreilung, e.g. Wi7 17th. Division Guard Company), and about eight 1,200~1,800-man Battalions under a lieutenant-colonel or major. Several battalions could be grouped into a regimental-status Bereich under a colonel. A battalion (Arbeitsgruppe) contained about six companies

French members of the ‘KK, probably 6th Regt. of NSI Transportgruppe Luftwaffe, being awarded che Iron Cro: ote the Grst model armshield worn by the NCO on the right. (Josef Charita)

(Abteilungen—although in the armed forces an Abteilung was a battalion),

The company, the normal tactical unit, commanded by a captain, occupied a work camp and carried a number, sometimes also a name; e.g. Abteilung 5/60 ‘Wallenstein’—sth Company, 6oth Battalion (6th Division) commemorating the Thirty Years’ War general Albrecht von Wallenstein. It had 214 men in a six- man staff and four 69-man platoons (Ziige) under a subaltern or warrant officer, each with three 17-man Sections (‘Trupps) under a sergeant or corporal. Rank and file were ‘armed’ with spades, and transported by bicycle.

‘The RAD’s mission was to educate German youth physically and politically, and to use them to help farmers feed the nation by increasing the amount of cultivatable land, Companies reclaimed marshland—the draining of the huge Elmsland marsh, near the Dutch border, was the biggest, though unfinished, project developed wasteland and waterways; and improved land already under cultivation. In wartime they were to provide support for Army engineers in building and repairing roads, railways, bridges, airfields and fortifications.

The RAD supported the bloodless invasions of Austria (March 1938), the Sudetenland (October 1938) and Czechoslo- vakia (March 1939). From June 1938 to September 1939 300 companies supported civilian contractors under Organisation Todt building the Westwall (‘Siegfried Line’) along Germany's western border, from Emmerich on the Dutch frontier to Lérrach on the Swiss border. About 100 companies helped on the Ostwall fortifications on the Polish border. As tension with Poland increased in August 1939, 115 companies helped with

harvesting in East Prussia, and in Danzig RAD units supported the German Army.

The RAD reached its peak strength of 360,000 men in 1,700 companies when, on 26 August 1939, general mobilization was announced. Immediately 1,050 companies were transferred to the Army to form the new Construction Troops (Bautruppen) branch. Fifty-five Regimental Staffs (Abschnitisbaustibe), num- bered in the 1-111 series, each controlled four 2,000-man

‘They were now expected to repair roads up to the front line, load and unload ammunition, and provide temporary guards for prisoners-of-war and key installations. In oc ) repaired and built airfields and serviced aircraft during the Battle of Britain, and constructed coastal fortifications and gun- emplacements for the Navy; and they improved the road network in occupied Poland. Some units served in Yugoslavia and Greece in April 1941

In May 1941 Divisional Staff HVITI, 18 companies of 2 Brigade, K344, K363 and K376 Battalions, with 12,000 Not wegian Labour Service personnel, began upgrading the Trondheim-Kirkenes section of National Highway 50 in North- ern Norway to winter capability. In July they were transferred to Northern Finland, building supply roads for the German 3rd Mountain Division. They came under fire between 26 April and

tRits, Flemish service dress peaked cap

‘on officer between the and blank right hand VNV and NSKK- collar patch. Transportgruppe (Josef Charita) Luftwaffe, wearing the

Construction Battalions (series 1~333), each with four companies (cx-RAD Abteilungen, expanded to 4or men each by mobilizing older untrained Army reservists) and an Army Column. ‘There were also 18 Heavy and 12 Light Motorized Road Construction Battalions, About 60%, of these units served in the Polish campaign of September-October 1939, ¢ roads for supplies for the advancing forces

In December 1939, the Polish campa Army retained the Construction units; but Hitler, against Goering’s advice that the RAD be disbanded for the duration of the war, ordered Hierl to rebuild his organization. Consequently 00 companies were re-formed, and the RAD reyerted to its pre- atus, providing pre-military training and supporting Army engineers in the field.

During 1940 about 900 RAD companies supported oper- ations in Norway in April, and Netherlands, Belgium and France in May, ensuring supplies to the advancing motorized divisions.

Transport

aring

gn won, the German

war

1 sergeant of NSKK- M1942 NCO collar br: Transportbrigade Todt and black shoulder straps carrying flowers ata edged with NCO braid funeral. He wearsa blank with an aluminium pip. right hand collar patch, (Brian Davis)

12

27 May 1942 during Soviet attacks from Murmansk, before their sepatriation to Germany in July.

‘The Eastern Front

The Eastern Front provided the RAD’s greatest challenge. During 1941 companies supported Army Group Centre's push on Moscow. In August a divisional staff under Brig. Schmeidler, advancing into Ukraine with rst Panzer Army with five motor- ized battalions —K 40 (3/40, 5/42, 6/43 companies), K6o (3/60, 4/60, 3/60), Kr3o (1/130, 8/130, 1/133) Kr4s (8/145, 10/145,

‘The Divisional District number and name, with alternative names in brackets, is followed by the constituent battalions,

1 Ostpreussen— 10-17, 19.

IL Danzig-Westpreussen— 20, 20A, 21-9 IE Wartheland-West— 30-9

IV Pommern-Ost—4o~7

V Pommern-West 50-5

VI Mecklenburg 60-4, 67

VII Schleswig-Holstein— 70-1, 73-7. VIII Brandenburg-Ost (formerly Ostmark)— 80-7. IX Brandenburg-West (formerly Berlin-Brandenburg)

100-7 T10—6, 119.

XII Oberschlesien 120-7.

XIII Magdeburg-Anhalt 130-8

XIV Halle-Merseburg 140-5.

XV Sachsen— 150-7

XVI Westfalen-Nord— 160-5

XVII Niedersachsen-Mitte 170-7

XVIII Niedersachsen-Ost— 180-8.

XIX Niedersachsen-West (Oldenburg) 190-8. Westfalen-Siid 200-9.

XI Niederthein 210-7

II Hessen-Nord—220-7.

XXIII Thiiringen—230-8

TV Moselland (Mittelrhein) —240-9.

XXV Hessen-Siid— 250-8.

| XXVI Wiirttemberg—260-7

VII Baden —270-9.

XXVIII Franken 280-8

X Bayreuth (Bayrischer Ostmark) 290-8 Bayern-Hochland —300-6.

TOberrhein 310-9.

II Saar-Pfalz (Westmark) 320-9.

III Alpenland—330-5.

TV Oberdonau— 340-8.

XXXV Wien-Niederdonau—350-6.

XXXVI Siidmark— 360-8.

VII Sudetenland-West 370-6.

VIII Bohmen-Mihren (Sudetenland-Ost) 380-6. X Siid Ostpreussen —390-3. Wartheland-Ost—4o0-s, 408, 500-1.

RAD conscripts of ata parade in Germany, Battalion 284 (Franconia), —_1944. They are still wearing wearing the M1943 peaked 11935 collar

field cap, ‘present spades’ _ patches. (Josef Charita)

12/145) and K 184 (5/184, 9/186, 7/188) —crosse assault-barges, helping to establish and s

re a bridgehead under fire, and remaining in Ukraine until July 1942.

By 1942 there were 427 RAD companies on the Eastern Front: 67 with Army Group Centre, and 324 in Ukraine and Caucasus with Army Groups Band A respectively. In June 1942 Companies 4/161, 5/162, 5/163 and 10/165 defended a German fighter airfield near Novy Crinev from a Soviet regimental attack; and RAD personnel bicycled 2,000 miles through Ukraine supporting 4th Panzer Army’s advance into the Caucasus. From 30 July to 6 September 1942 Divisional Staff HXXV (Brig. von Bothmer) with Battalions K83 ( 5), K84 (4/84, 4/86, 3/86, 10/86) and Kr2z (6/120, 2/122, 4/122, 4/123) and Companies 4314, 3/313 and 5/332, serving with gth Army, successfully helped defend Rzhev from Soviet infantry and armoured attacks, In rear areas partisan groups were frequently engaged. In August 1942 RAD units in Russia were drafted directly into the Army and Air Force.

Also during 1942, 36 RAD companies served with the Air Force in the West; 226 worked in munitions factories; and 20,000 personnel helped clear Allied bomb damage in the Ruhr. In December some companies transferred to Greece, others to France to build the Auantikwall fortifications along the Channel and Atlantic coasts; and from October 1943 the RAD built roads in Albania.

From 1943 about 420 Companies were each given six weeks’ training on anti-aircraft guns before posting to an Air Force anti- aircraft battalion as an AA battery with dual designation, e.g, AA Battery 5217 (RAD Company 6/10). In 1944 two Air Defence Inspectorates were formed, controlling 10 Divisional Staffs, cach attached to an Air Force Command, to oversee the batteries.

13

ing the RAD service tunic with Mrg42 collar patches, (Josef Charita)

RAD troops singing marching songs at

parade in Jersey, C. Islands, 1941; note the Jersey policeman in characteristic British police helmet; and the contrast in uniform details between the officer in the right foreground and the troops. (Brian Davis)

14

Inspectorate ‘Reich’ had LI, LH, L XII, L XIV, L XVI and L XVII under Air Fleet ‘Reich’ and L TV and L V under Anti- Aircraft Corps II and I respectively; while Inspectorate ‘West had L IT and L XVII under Air Districts Western France and Belgium-Northern France respectively. In May 1944a RAD AA battalion joined SS-Flak-Regiment ‘Obersalzberg’

RAD anti-aircraft batteries were employed against Allied tanks, causing Allied protests that the RAD was abusing its non- combatant status under the Hague Convention; but RAD personnel continued to lay minefields, man and defend fortific- ations and carry out civil defence duties in

On 1 July 1944 five Labour Service Inspectorates, under major-generals or brigadiers, were created to administer the Divisional Districts in Germany, now numbered I-XXXX. These Inspectorates were: ‘Nordost’ (HQ Kin ; 2 ‘Nord- west’ (HQ Oldenburg); 3 ‘Mitte’ (HQ Halle); 4 ‘Siidwest? (HQ Munich); 5 ‘Siidost” (IQ Vienna). In September 1944 AA Batteries 1/295 (RAD 2/371) and ?/137 (RAD 4/310) distingu- ished themselves as gunners and infantry at Arnhem against the British 1st Airborne Division, for which 4/310 (Capt, Roland Mayer) was awarded, but probably never received, the sleeve title Arnheim. From August to October 1944 RAD personnel helped build defensive earthworks along the threatened German borders before being withdrawn for drafting into the armed forces.

In 1945 the Labour Service period was reduced to six-cight weeks, now devoted exclusively to infantry basic taining. In September 1944 Hierl had successfully resisted pressure to integrate the RAD into the Home Guard (Deutscher Volks- sturm) ‘as this would prejudice its non-military status; but he accepted joint tactical operations. He did, however, sanction the formation, on 29 March 1945, six weeks before the end of the War, of four RAD Infantry Divisions, each with Army personnel and 7,500 RAD members in one artillery and three infantry

rman cities.

{ medal award ceremony for RAD Company 6/386 (Sudetenland). The two warrant officers (right) are wearing M1935 collar patches, the officer (far right) the brown alguillettes ofa battalion adjutant and Mrg42 collar patches. (Brian Davis)

regiments. 1st ‘Schlageter’ Division engaged Soviet troops at Waren with 3rd Panzer Army; 2nd ‘Friedrich Ludwig Jahn’ and 3rd ‘Theodor Korner’ Divisions served west of Berlin with 12th Army. The 4th Division and RAD Mountain Brigades mark’ and ‘Enns’ were formed but did not see action.

Foreign enlistment ‘The RAD was primarily intended to train German youth and foreign enlistment was originally forbidden, but rules were later relaxed. Ex-Norwegian Labour Service members were en- couraged to join RAD, and by 1942 180 Danes had enlisted. A 3oo-strong Dutch battalion—'Gruppe Niederlande’— was raised, and served in Russian rear areas from May to October 1942. In autumn 1943 young Estonians, and presumably other nationalities, could volunteer for RAD service in Germany to qualify for German university entrance, but no national units were formed.

In November 1932 six months’ voluntary labour service in the FAD was offered to young unemployed German women, and this continued in the RAD{w]. On 4 September 1939 this period was made compulsory for women aged 18-25, and in October 1941 extended by a further six months’ community service under RADj{w] supervision in offices, hospitals, factories, farms or public utilities. In 1940 the RAD/wJ, with 100,000 women, was organized into 25 Regimental Districts (Bezirke), numbered I-XXV, each with five or six battalion-status Groups of Camps (Lagergruppen), each controlling about 13 company-status Camps (Lager). There were 2,005 camps, each with three to six \2-woman Dormitories (Kameradschaften). From 1943. the RAD jw] served in RAD uniform in the Air Warning Service (Flugmeldedienst), from spring 1944 in AA batteries, and from January 1945 in searchlight batteries as Anti-Aircraft Auxiliaries (RAD-Flakwaffenhelferinnen).

Labour services modelled on the RAD and developed by RAD liaison officers were established in most states under German occupation. In Denmark there was the Land Arbejds- Tjenesten; in Norway the Arbeidstjensten; in the Netherlands the Nederlandse Arbeids Dienst (in 1942-3 three NAD com-

panies, designated ‘Oostkorps’, supported German Air Force operations in Russia); in Belgium the Flemish Vrijwillige Arbcidsdienst voor Vlaanderen and the Walloon Service volon- taire du travail pour la Wallonie, in Poland the Sonderdienst, in Serbia the embryonic Construction Service. Enlistments, whether